Adaptive Social Protection is conceptualised as a series of measures aimed to build resilience of the poorest and most vulnerable people to climate change by combining elements of social protection, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation (Arnall et al. 2010 cited in World Bank 2018). PEPs are designed as labour-intensive infrastructure development initiatives aimed to provide cash transfers, food-based payments, livelihood generation, etc.
INTERVIEW: There is a proliferation of income support schemes on the Indian public policy landscape. Add to this two more by the principal national parties contesting the 2019 Lok Sabha elections. Earlier this year, the Union government headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi Government announced and implemented the PM-KISAN (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi), which provides income support of Rs. 6,000 a year financed fully by the Central government to landed farmers owning up to 2 hectares.