This webinar, titled Overview of Non-contributory Social Protection Programmes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region through a Child Lens, presented the main findings of a recent study produced by the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Regional Office in the Middle East and North of Africa (MENARO). The objective of the study was to produce an inventory of social protection systems in the MENA region. Arthur van Diesen (Social Policy Advisor, UNICEF MENARO) moderated the discussions, while Charlotte Bilo (Researcher, IPC-IG) and Anna Carolina Machado (Researcher, IPC-IG) presented the subject and responded to questions.
The discussants presented the main findings of the first study, which will culminate in a publication to be released in 2018 (click here for final publication).
The state of non-contributory social protection programmes in the MENA region
The webinar began by providing details on the state of non-contributory social protection programmes in the MENA region. Both panellists presented the most prevalent programme types, targeted population groups, as well as targeting mechanisms and other relevant features.
The research considered the following types of programmes:
- Cash and in-kind transfers (conditional and unconditional);
- School feeding programmes;
- Public works programmes (cash-for-work);
- Educational fee waivers;
- Housing benefits;
- Programmes facilitating access to health (health care benefits and non-contributory health insurances);
- Food and energy subsidies.
For the context of the study it is important to know that among the 20 countries included in the MENA region, a large share of the population is under 18 years old, and within this group, many are affected by child poverty. Eleven Arab States have one in four children suffering from acute multi-dimensional poverty. Against this background, social protection policies should be designed to respond to both monetary and multi-dimensional poverty. In light of the humanitarian crises the region is facing, the situation of vulnerability is particularly dramatic for the increasing number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)
The study mapped more than one hundred social protection programmes. The mapping does not address programme efficiency but was concerned with the design features of the programmes. It was found that more than half of the programmes involve cash transfers. Here it is important to highlight that programmes vary significantly in size, benefit value and delivery frequency.
The main target groups are poor households and children. A significant number of programmes feature orphans as the target group. It is relevant to highlight that all countries in the MENA region have at least one programme specifically targeting children.
Child-sensitive design features
Researchers Anna Carolina Machado and Charlotte Bilo then presented child-sensitive social protection programme design features:
- Programmes targeting children;
- Supporting children’s access to education;
- Supporting children’s access to nutrition;
- Supporting children’s access to health;
- Cash benefits which increase with the number of household members.
In an effort to demonstrate the differences between programmes identified as supporting children’s access to health, education and nutrition, the presenters presented an overview of each. More than half of programmes targeting children in the MENA region, are aimed to support children’s access to education. Most of them are cash or to in-kind transfers schemes.
Regarding children’s nutrition, 20 programmes in 13 countries are linked to nutrition outcomes. Predominantly, this involves school feeding programmes (SFP). Health programmes are the least prevalent, with just eleven schemes.
In the final remarks, the presenters highlighted the fact that there are more schemes supporting children’s access to education and fewer to health and nutrition. What’s more, children below the age of 5 are often not targeted.
The moderator, Arthur van Diesen, recognised the need to rationalise the existing social protection programmes, to improve child-sensitive programme design and better cater to pressing needs. He presented five steps for countries for the implementation of social protection systems that are more child-sensitive:
- Understand child poverty and vulnerability;
- Assess how well current social protection systems are serving children;
- Design truly child-sensitive, pro-poor social protection measures;
- Think boldly about the fiscal space required;
- Boost the shock-responsiveness of systems.
The webinar closed with Arthur moderating the Q&A session:
- How do we make social protection systems more sensitive to child needs?
- What is included and not-included in this first study? Which are the criteria?
- Are migrant children and migrant refugees included in this study?
- How do you actually assess the adequacy of these social protection programmes in the MENA region?
Stay tuned for next year’s webinars on the MENA Project Webinar Series.
Watch the webinar recording here!
This blog post is part of the Social Protection in the MENA region webinar series, which brings together the summaries of webinars organised by IPC-IG and UNICEF MENA Regional Office on the topic. Please join the Online Community Social Protection in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) if you are interested in following the most recent discussions on the topic. If you have any thoughts on this webinar summary, we would love to hear from you. Please add your comments below!